6.2 Predator Control



Predator management is likely the most controversial action we take in caribou recovery.

Wolves are the caribou’s principal predator in British Columbia, and high wolf numbers are associated with declining caribou populations.

Managing wolf populations and other caribou recovery actions is challenging. Both animals are part of a complex ecological and now human-influenced relationship. Wolf packs are dependent on their prey (moose, caribou, deer). Prey populations are affected by forest practices and other human activities that affect their habitat. When resource development and recreation open up new roads, wolves use them for easy access to wintering caribou  herds.

Decisions on predator control must be approached with care, and with abundant and clear information to the public on how they were made. It is important to note that wolf control is never carried out in isolation as a single solution.

As the Caribou Recovery Program planning continues, we will record approaches and policies currently used in B.C. and outside the province. B.C. is currently in year four of a five-year pilot project focusing on wolf removal around  the South Selkirks and South Peace herds. Building on this knowledge, we can draft new provincial policy with a focus on multi-region predator plans, clear decision-making steps, and transparent   communications.

Most importantly, we will develop science-based measures and criteria that will be the same as the Caribou Recovery Program’s new decision-making and herd planning models.

125 responses to “6.2 Predator Control

    User avatar
    [-] Taylor

    I hope this is an actual science based approach without emotions being involved when it comes to managing predators. The time to act has already passed as the caribou and ungulate number six have dropped significantly. When is the province going to start protecting ungulates and not protecting every predator because the lower mainland says to.

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    [-] Brett

    The wolf population in BC is out of control, being an avid back country user in multiple different sports I see wolf sign literally every single time I am in the back country, lots of time more than elk/deer.
    Along with Wolves is the bear population, grizzly bears (and blacks) are well known to love calving season for all species. I am not I biologist but in my mind the only way to continue a healthy population of any animal is the young. We need the government to make science based decisions on predator control not emotional like they did with the grizzly hunt, listen to people who live and play in the back country not the people who live in the city and like seeing pictures of the predators.

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    [-] Mark

    Manage predator populations by science. Too many predators, knock them back to get their numbers in line with the amount of prey available

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    [-] Jim

    Predator control has been proven to be highly successful in the four years of the five year recovery plan. Past wolf cull efforts by Ministry of Enviroment were even more successful because of their more widespread scope.
    Wolves are highly mobile hunters and will infiltrate vacant areas adjacent. Control efforts should be broader to best protect these endangered caribou herds.
    Cost efficiencies could be improved by implementing a broader scope as well.caribou Calf survival rates have dramatically increased in the herds undergoing wolf control. Keep doing this. Do more of this. Nothing else will help these caribou herds in the short term. Then work on improving habitat and limiting access etc.

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    [-] Charlene

    The correlation between caribou and loss of land should be addressed. Yes, wolves are their main predator, but the correlation between the drop in caribou numbers and loss of land is more of a concern

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    [-] Kathleen

    We need the government to make science based decisions on animal control. Also, the cruel ways the animals are killed needs to stop. Poison is scientifically proven, to not just kill wolves but other wildlife. In addition its an extremely cruel way to die. It sickens me that Canada still practices such extremely inhuman methods. It's the human population who are causing the loss of habitat in the wdlife at risk. Not wolves. Please base information and actions on scientific facts.

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    [-] Kathleen

    There are no scientific facts that the wolves are responsible for the dimishing population of the Cariboo, but the loss of habitat, that continues to be restricted by humans.
    So far, decisions haven't been based on scientific facts.

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    [-] Kathleen

    This is not based on scientific facts.

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    [-] TS

    The government has no right whatsoever to be killing our wolves to protect cariboo. Mother nature knows what she is doing and its when humans interfere problems occur. Its not the wolves that are killing them off its all the logging. You make is seem like its so easy for wolves to even catch a cariboo when its not. Many baby animals in the wild get killed by predators that is life. It does not cause a species to become endangered of becoming extinct. I strongly oppose killing wolves at all or any predators. That is wrong and will not do anything as its the logging that is killing them off

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    [-] Alexander

    Predator management is a regrettable, but necessary emergency measure while the habitat can regrow and be protected. It is effective in slowing the declines, but it is not the cause.

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    [-] Alexander

    The declines are due to poor habitat resulting in low calf recruitment and low reproduction. Predator control is an emergency measure to slow the declines. More predators mean faster declines, but predators are not the cause of the declines. So, we may need predator control for a while and hopefully the habitat can be restored to the point where the numbers don't require predator control.

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    [-] Kelly

    The South Selkirk caribou herd is now "functionally extinct." The lesson learned is that wolf culling didn't save them, and it won't save the other herds. Why is the Province locked in to a five-year plan that failed? Exterminating one species in an attempt to curb the extermination of another will only end with the loss of two species. The trophic cascade this will produce is completely unknown.

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    [-] Bryce

    If we are to keep caribou on the landscape in areas that have been heavily transformed from industrial activities, we will need to do some predator control. This should be a stop gap measure, not an ongoing policy. The habitat needs to be restored, & the predator/prey balance allowed to return to normal. It's not the predators fault, we have changed the landscape such that it now supports more prey species than normal, this in turn supports more predators.

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    [-] Bryce

    Higher than normal wolf numbers are associated with great predation on caribou, but they are normally there in those numbers due to other factors.

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    [-] Denise

    This is so controversial. We know what our impacts are with respect to forestry, recreation and habitat fragmentation. I am reluctant to blame wolves, when there are so many of us and so few of them.

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    [-] Derek4

    Predator control should be high on the list of concern for caribou recovery alongside access restrictions and rd deactivating. Wolves are a serious problem in the south selkirks at the moment and the only effective way to manage wolves is to either let them eat everything so they starve or to reduce their numbers so everything can survive especially the caribou. Everything in moderation. Including the controversial culls of predators.

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    [-] Derek

    Wolves need to be managed effectively for the overall health and abundance of all wildlife. Just as white tail deer need to be managed for abundant mule deer populations in certain areas. Manage all game species including predators. Our ungulates, especially caribou, depend on it. There is definitely other things that need to happen in the long term but predator control is an ongoing effort that needs to be made.

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    [-] Ed

    A VERY controversial topic in our Province no matter how you look at it..But I agree with Alexander, predator control for the short term works. I have seen it done in the Fort Nelson area and the Peace River area and the after effects yrs after.
    Know they have a predator problem in those areas again, as well as the Cariboo area (the pendulum swings again)…
    It was easier yrs ago to maintain the predators and have a "balance', know you have all the control in Vancouver (more votes), and that doesn't work for the rest of BC

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    [-] Nicholas

    I echo many of the sentiments above. Science needs to be the driving force behind decisions regarding predator control – not voter satisfaction. If healthy predator populations have increased on the landscape causing a decrease in caribou populations, then predator control needs to be considered. Effective leadership in government and public education on these science-based studies would be needed in order to make predator control a politically-permissible management tool.

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    [-] Kelly

    Wolf culling in BC and Alberta has been ongoing for several years, and has done nothing to prevent the loss of caribou. It's time to abandon the practice and put funds into habitat concerns.

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    [-] Jim

    Culling wolves, which may prove necessary, should be the last option. Although it is highly desirable to preserve one species, It should not be at the expense of another. In order for the public to make a balanced assessment of the necessity or otherwise, statistics should be printed alongside this section, listing, as available, numbers and declines of both species.
    But the emphasis should lie on habitat preservation and expansion.

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    [-] Gynette

    If the decision is based on sound science it would be reasonable. These decisions have always been made without consequences to the overall ecosystem. Predadation is less then 3% . Lack of habitat and disease is the true reasons for this decline in Elk numbers. As far as "signs of wolves in the back country " where else should they be? Listen to the scientific research. Wolves are essential to healthy ecosystems. Proven over and over again.

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    [-] Kimberly

    Protect the habitat of the caribou and don't scapegoat wolves. It is human activity that is having a detrimental effect on the caribou herds. Leave wolves alone, they are an essential part of the ecosystem. Inuit believe that "the caribou and the wolf are one, for although the caribou feeds the wolf, it is the wolf that keeps the caribou strong."

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    [-] Anonymous

    How can you have already stared culling WOLVES in inhuman with ways without science based decision making ? Evidence that killing all WOLVES will produce more caribou numbers!? Impossible because it is not science based. It is a misguided attempt and band aid to cover up the real issue or environmental degradation and deforestation.

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    [-] Scotty

    If we are to have recovery of caribou, predator management is a must. There have been study’s done that show once a wolf cull was in place, survival numbers of calves was much higher. It also is a bit of common sense when you have a high population of wolves, and a dwindling population of caribou. Eventually the wolfs are going to pick of that last one.

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    [-] Kara

    Continuing to use wolves as the scapegoat for poor management of our forestry and resource sector is misguided and shameful. There is a serious lack of science-based evidence supporting the culling of predators for prey managment. Human activity is what needs to be managed…yet our policies and regulations continue to bow down to industry giants. As per recent research published in Science Advances: "“We highlighted four foundational hallmarks that would be required for a wildlife policy to be considered science-based: transparency, external scrutiny, clear objectives and evidence. 60 per cent of wildlife management policies reviewed had fewer than half of those hallmarks. About half of the policies examined did not rely on population data. An absence of adequate data, analysis and evidence doesn’t stop politicians from using science to defend and promote their policies" Current policies on predator control need to be challenged. It's time for change in BC. Predator management such as these wolf culls is misguided, unethical, and indefensible.

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    [-] Sadie

    Wildlife and conservation management should be well grounded in ecology and environmental ethics. Wolf killing programs have neither, and are therefore not an appropriate wildlife management tool. We need to question any management action that does harm, whether or not it is justified to “do good”.

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    [-] Sadie

    In addition to wolves, there are other important predators of caribou in BC, including cougars, grizzly bears, black bears, wolverines, lynx, and golden eagles. Wolves are NOT the primary predator of ALL AGE CLASSES of caribou in BC.
    Aside from carrying capacity being the major limiting factor for caribou in BC due to habitat destruction, the United States' National Research Council (1997) identified many other factors that contribute to declining ungulate herds in the most comprehensive biological review of wolf and bear kill programs in North America, . These include: weather, nutrition and food availability, other predators and predation rates, population size, gene flow and genetic diversity.

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    [-] Sadie

    As caribou declines accelerate in Canada, wolves are once again being scapegoated in attempts to protect oil and gas, mining, forestry, and recreational activities.

    It is critical to distinguish management from conservation. In the current biodiversity crisis we are facing today, all management should be for conservation. From a conservation perspective, management should be for wildlife rather than of wildlife.

    Research has shown that the destruction of mature forests and degeneration of wilderness areas have deprived caribou of their life requisites and exposed them to levels of predation they did not evolve to withstand and are incapable of adapting to. The role of wolves and other carnivores in the ongoing decline of mountain and boreal caribou is a symptom of altered and lost caribou habitat, rather than an underlying cause. We must be careful to distinguish between the existence of caribou and the long-term persistence of the ecological systems on which the caribou depend. Intact ecological systems are characterised by the species that inhabit them and by the ecological functions and processes that link species with their environment (e.g. food, security, thermal regulation, migration, predator-prey relationships). Although species can continue to exist after natural ecological relationships have been altered or destroyed, most ecologists understand that such systems are not sustainable and not representative of healthy environments.

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    [-] Sadie

    There is no factual basis for the assumption that a period of intensive wolf control for a few years can result in long-term changes in ungulate population densities (NRC 1997). There is a lack of scientific evidence showing the functional effectiveness of wolf kill programs.
    In British Columbia and Alberta, governments have been sterilizing and/or killing wolves for more than a decade, although this has not resulted in any significant increases in caribou populations to date. Indeed, Alberta’s wolf kill program that began in 2005 has failed to achieve any improvement in boreal caribou adult female survival, or any improvement in calf survival (Hervieux et al. 2014). As such, it had no effect on population dynamics.

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    [-] Sadie

    Predator control can succeed in increasing prey populations only if sufficient habitat of adequate quality exists to support the expanded populations – that is, only when prey populations are below the environmental carrying capacity, which will take 60 – 150 years to recover adequate lichen biomass to support self-sustaining herds. During the time it would take to recover caribou habitat, thousands of wolves would be killed. Long-term and wide-scale killing of wolves can negatively impact many plants and animals in the ecosystem. Small-scale wolf killing programs are ineffective at reducing wolf numbers due to the species’ compensatory reproduction, immigration of wolves from surrounding areas into vacant territories, and changes in the family-based social structure of wolves. Even small-scale killing programs disrupt pack cohesion and biologically short-change landscapes that can benefit from the presence of intact wolf packs.

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    [-] Sadie

    A decision to continue killing wolves is scientifically unsound. Studies show that killing wolves does not reduce their population for long because their behaviour allows them to rebound quickly and fill in vacant spaces created where resident wolves have been killed. Killing wolves is not a 'one time solution' for caribou, but would involve killing hundreds of wolves each and every year. Hundreds of wolves have already been killed and yet caribou habitat destruction is still rampant.

    Successive governments have habitually favoured the destruction of wolves over any consequential protection, enhancement, or restoration of caribou habitat recommended by scientists since the 1970’s .

    As mentioned in previous comments, there is a lack of scientific evidence showing the functional effectiveness of wolf kill programs. Regardless, science is a tool that can inform, however It does not give anyone permission to cause harm.

    All wildlife management should be rooted in a foundation of ethics as well as evidence-based science. The methods used to kill wolves include aerial shooting and killing snares which do not meet Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) standards that guide the welfare and humane treatment of wild and domestic animals. BC and Alberta are the only two Canadian provinces that have not adopted the As such, these provinces are not in accordance with this national standard. Wolves are sentient animals that deserve to be treated humanely.

    Lethal predator reduction programs disregard the considerable ecological disruption that scientists have documented when top predators are removed, and exhibit callous indifference to the suffering of wolves and other animals. Experimental wolf kill programs are unwarranted, unethical and damage the integrity of scientific inquiry.

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    [-] Mikhael

    It was noted prior that predator control in this case the culling of wolves, is not the fact based solution. Controlling human and industrial activity is the solution to the survival of caribou and related species. One only needs look at the example of Yellowstone Park where wolves were reintroduced with the result, in a short time, of a return to health of rivers, forests, supported species and the list goes on. Further, wolves are social animals who depend on their pack for their livelihood. Culling an alpha or even several animals from that pack will cause them to disperse, potentially into unknown territory and impinge onto human populated areas. It is a complex situation and one that needs to be FULLY understood. It is certain there is lobbying of the government from environmental and industrial interests – the ministry responsible needs to insure proper sound science based data is used for any direction it takes.

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    [-] Diane

    Culling wolves in an effort to preserve caribou populations is not only a barbaric practice, it is scientifically unsound. Human impact on caribou habitat is the cause of caribou population decline. Address that and caribou have a chance . Wolves ensure healthy populations, taking the injured and sick. They control deer populations and help preserve habitat for multiple creatures. MAN is at fault for the decline in caribou – through climate change, poorly thought out logging practices and other insults on the environment, such as mining and hydro dams. Fix those problems and wolf populations won’t pay the price – especially as there is no return.

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    [-] Lloyd

    The decisions that government makes regarding wolf kill policies must take into account the broader effect it will have on other ungulates. The wisdom of Solomon is needed.

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    [-] Jason

    Predator management is a necessary part of the formula to successfully protect caribou and to ignore it would be unwise and unscientific.

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    [-] KX

    Predator culling was a pathetic last ditch band-aid solution because the province was negligent in preventing resource industry from building roads and access to remote regions. It is the thinning of forests and access roads that allowed animals like wolves to prey on Caribou. Humans are 100% responsible for declines. Time to stop making new roads, cuts, seismic lines, etc. These animals need undisturbed and more protected spaces now. Greed is only reason these animals are at risk.

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    [-] Don

    As caribou are a more fragile species than wolves we need to control the predators. We influence our environment in many ways and this leads to an unbalance so we need to intervene and try to get a more balanced environment between the prey and predators.
    we can't let the emotional feeling of those urban residents lead to the extinction on the caribou through the insistence on "more studies" over and over, the time for urgent action is now!

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    [-] Don

    As this is likely a human influenced decline to preserve at least a remnant population of caribou we need to intervene to do this predator control, even radical predator control may be necessary to accomplish this is the near term. near term may be a few decades as the problems or trend has been a few decades in the making and" if it is logging" that is a large cause of this decline then it will take a number of decades to regrow the necessary forest to sustain the population. If we just let "mother nature take its course then we will not have southern caribou.

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    [-] Stacey

    To say that there is "science" to support this slaughter is rubbish. What there IS, is pressure from the cattle/ranching lobby and the forest industry that the government simply cowers from. All actual science points to predators being necessary to healthy herds and what is actually causing the rapid decline is the complete failure of our government to put aside sufficient habitat to support healthy herds.

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    [-] Bart

    Predator, particularly wolf, control is necessary in order to protect vulnerable herds such as the mountain caribou. Science has illustrated this in the Yukon. A necessary short term evil that I support. I question and challenge anyone that tells me wolves only account for 3% of caribou mortality in herds of concern. In the long run we need to address the bigger more geologic influences, most notably human influence on the Caribou's habitat. These herds should result in SARA being invoked immediately.

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    [-] Eric

    Anthropomorphism is a highly contentious issue, it puts human emotion ahead of science based decision making. Nobody is calling for extermination of a species, wolves in this case. Mother nature does NOT take care of itself equally, it is cruel and weak species die out. But we also need to consider human impact. Humans have altered the landscape and given an unnatural advantage to wolves, which utilize linear features, they cover ground easier and faster, which leads to higher kill rates. The caribou decline is complex and of course there are multiple factors involved. Long term we need to see habitat maintained and/or rehabilitated. Penning stations can also improve calf survival. But in the short term, wolves are a major concern, there needs to be predator control, this means killing wolves in certain regions to protect at risk caribou herds. What has happened to the caribou herd in Jasper? There is next to no development in the park, no logging, no heavy industries. In the short term, there absolutely needs to be predator control to help the caribou survive. The huge focus seems to be on killing of wolves, but nobody is protesting increasing moose harvest. Killing more moose to reduce competition with the caribou for food sources. Why is nobody protesting an increased moose allocation? Anthropomorphism…wolves are cuter than moose. Life consumes life to survive, let's leave emotions outside of the equation and give all options equal consideration to from a multi faceted recovery plan.

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    [-] Heather

    1) The wolf cull is unproven as an effective method to control caribou predation and therefore is not "scientific."

    Each wolf that is shot and killed represents a huge loss to it's pack, disrupting the complex social order required to hunt, reproduce and successfully rear healthy offspring. As social creatures, the mass slaughters are an especially cruel choice. As evidenced by the feedback collected recently for the review of Grizzly Hunting laws , many BC Residents do not condone the indiscriminate killing of wild creatures.

    I strongly oppose any predation control method that harms another species. All wild animal species in Canada deserve protections.

    The stresses posed by Climate Change and Rural Development are hugely impactful on caribou who have specific habitat needs and a wandering habit. This leaves no room for any additional stressors. It is time for Canadians to face up to the fact that most of our wild animals are negatively impacted and made vulnerable by unfettered human recreational activities and resource exploration and removal. Predation is a natural and essential part of caribou herd health. Predation as a stressor pales in comparison to human interference with caribou habitat.

    To expect that the removal of predators will yield a healthy caribou population is simplistic, short sighted and not desirable by many who think and vote the way I do.

    2) BC Residents expect qualitatively good science to be used in wildlife management. Not all science is good science. "Proven" can mean, outdated.

    Data driven solutions depend upon good data collection methods. Poor quality and or insufficient data cannot produce viable solutions.

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    [-] TS

    Predators have nothing to do with the decline of cariboo, look what happened to yellowstone when they eliminated wolves from there and then brought them back. mother nature knows what she is doing and our gov't has no business interfering. All animals have their purpose in nature. Baby animals of all wildlife are at risk from predators, many get killed, others survive, that is nature. Adult cariboo are not that easy to catch. Its all the forestry that is killing off the cariboo. stop blaming the wolves

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    [-] TS

    BC gov't needs to show more respect and protection for our wildlife. Its disgusting the way it manages wildlife by killing them all due to humans causing problems. 600 black bears killed every year because of people putting out their garbage, cougars being driven from the mountains and attracted to farmers who don't have proper security, hundreds killed every year yet across the border in washington they are a protected species, grizzly bears for american hunters amusement, wolves due to forestry. Its really disgusting

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    [-] Scott

    The biologists already know what to do. Let them do it with out the misinformed public and political views.
    Wildlife groups have been working on this and have understood this for years. Science based info is there. Follow the facts not the opinions.

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    [-] Amos

    Preditor managment is going to be a must in recovering the caribou population. Preditor population is easily brought back after the caribou herd has recovered where as if we lose the caribou we will never see them in the wild again!

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    [-] Joan

    I believe the BC government should focus on habitat protection and not predator control. It has been proven that killing wolves does not help protected herds. One only has to look at the South Selkirk herd that is down to 3 animals despite the wolf culls that have been happening for three years. Stop using wolves as a scapegoat and start culling the real culprits, oil, gas and forest companies.

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    [-] Joan

    I hope you can learn from your ill sighted approach to saving the Selkirk herd and that the wolves you killed will not have died in vain. Giving caribou back their land with no disturbances from humans and their greedy activities is what is needed.

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    [-] Meghan

    We must work harder to protect the actual or potential caribou ranges in British Columbia (and Alberta). The true culprit of caribou decline is not wolves, it is habitat destruction at the hands of humans. Even though this is common knowledge, little is done to actually protect caribou habitat, rather governments rely on wolf culls when science does NOT support this method as a means to improving struggling caribou populations (maybe a short term band-aid to stabilize a sinking herd, but these methods have already been used much longer than should be considered "short term" and there is very little to show for it besides many sacrificed wolves). Wolf predation on caribou is merely a proximate cause to the ultimate cause, the destruction of critical caribou habitat. Governments; however, have done very little to actually save this habitat. Oil and gas, logging, recreational activities, etc, continue in critical areas long realized as being detrimental to the local caribou, and so the problems only persist. Wolves then have to pay the ultimate price in order to allow humans to continue destroying the natural landscape in the name of economy and/or entertainment. We must start making sacrifices and not make other species pay for our mistakes and continued destruction. Please stop the wolf culls and enact immediate moratoriums on industrial or recreational use in areas of critical habitat, regardless of the loss to profits and human wants/amusement. If we don't start making serious and immediate changes, little will be left for future generations (of any species).

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    [-] K.

    I am in complete agreement with John Marriot's statements on this subject…" It's infuriating to see the BC government continue to scapegoat wolves in a misguided attempt to save caribou, all the while pandering to logging companies mowing down our precious old-growth forests — the habitat loss that is the real root of the precipitous decline of caribou across the province (and in Alberta, too).

    Government scientists openly admit that the wolf cull is inhumane and is a stop-gap measure that has little effect on caribou conservation on its own, yet they've just proposed to expand the cull into the backyard I grew up in, the Revelstoke-Shuswap district. If enacted, this would mean BC would be home to three different wolf culls. One only need look at the South Selkirk caribou herd, which is down to 3 caribou despite an intensive wolf cull in the past few years, to see the folly in these actions."

    Please reconsider the further culling of wolves, who have a right to live in peace and freedom in the wild, free from this barbaric form of killing…. to kill one wild animal as a way to try and manage another is not reasonable and is not the answer to the Caribou recovery…. As Canadians, we need to respect all of our wild life in equal measure and preserve it for future generations… and most of all, preserve the wild lands which it needs to survive and thrive…..

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    [-] Ben

    Predator control will not save BC’s Mountain Caribou but is most definitely necessary to give them a chance at re-establishing a sustainable population. I disagree with TS’s comments that “Mother Nature knows what she is doing”. That’s crazy to think that when we have an effected everything. How do we manage prey, habitat, climate, migration corridors without managing predators? They must be managed to save the mountain caribou.

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    [-] Megan

    In this section, it clearly states that human activity is one of the biggest parts of the problem. Admitting that new roads for recreation, logging, etc. are to blame for making it easier for predators to access caribou herds. So we construct the roads and implement human activity, ruining the natural predator vs. prey ecology in these areas. Then in the most hypocritical and cruel way, we turn around and say the wolves are the problem (when the human activity is what made them a problem) and start killing our beautiful wildlife for no reason. End the wolf cull, and focus on the true issue: human activity, whether recreation or logging or other.

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    [-] bryan

    There is little to no science showing a predator cull will help the caribou population… other than completely removing any and all predators this is highly unlikely to help the declining herds. Habitat destruction and fragmentation is the issue not being dealt with probably due to economic consequences. Have some political will and do what is necessary and restore and preserve habitat. Time is running out for some herds and for some, Selkirk, it is too late. The wolves are not the problem and have every right to be there. Healthy predator populations are essential for healthy ecosystems.

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    [-] Casey

    How can wolves be blamed for the decline in caribou population when, as just mentioned with human interference and roads being made for these predators through illegal recreational activities (snowmobiling etc), it has given them a chance to enter areas they normally wouldn’t. Instead of scapegoating the wolves, what about stricter enforcement on the issue of entering protected areas with these vehicles. I understand that the greed the government has drives careless initiatives like the wolf cull in order to continue logging and oil exploitation, but that is not in the best interest of our land, First Nations, and the rest of this living in our country for the long term. Short term profits will continue to motivate these industries in subsidizing a practice that is inhumane and that will need to run for the next 50 years to reach the goal the government intends on achieving. That is a waste of tax payers money and a waste of an iconic animal of our nation.

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    [-] Debbie

    First off, we have no caribou on Vancouver Island, so there is no logical reason for a wolf cull on Vancouver Island. Secondly your very own statement on this document says it all ' "Prey populations are affected by forest practices and other human activities that affect their habitat. " The wolf is not responsible for the decline in caribou, even you acknowledge that with this statement. There is ample deer available as prey for the wolf on Vancouver Island. I am against the culling of one species to save another. The wolf cull should be stopped.

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    [-] Robyn

    Caribou and wolves both deserve respect. Habitat loss and rampant logging has led us to where we are today. Destroying the predators is not the solution. Please choose intelligent, habitat-sensitive solutions which deny humans the opportunity for resource extraction and recreation before denying wolves their rights to their traditional territories.

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    [-] Jean-Francois

    The caribou should be seen as the canari in the coal mine with respect to all prey species running to survive wolf predation. What we see happening to the caribou herds also happens to deer, sheep, moose, elk, and others.

    Obviously, other predators (cougars, coyotes, bears) take a significant toll on the overall population of ungulates, and control measures must be in place to maintain ballance of these populations. But wolves present a different challenge because of their mobility (collaring of wolves allowed biologists to prove their presence hundreds of kilometres away from their original site), because of their high fertility, and because of their adaptibility.

    Wolves have adapted well to the fine network of roads opened by the forrest industry. This has given them a significant advantage in their hunt for their preys.

    The mobility advantage they have gotten from us has further allowed them to roam over larger territories. And not to fool ourselves, they do not ''think'' in terms of population management, once the population of preys is exterminated or almost in a given range, they just move to the next valley.

    Other jurisdictions face a similar challenge. Wolves have been re-introduced in parts of Europe, and their presence is creating problems. Rural populations of central Europe read the old folkloric stories around wolves with a bitter sense of actuality.

    Alberta has shot down complete packs in areas where I have aquaintances hunting every year. The effect on the populations of ungulates was almost immediate. Two years after the erradication of a significant number of wolves in Northern Alberta, elk, moose and deer were plentyful anew. Why can't British-Columbians achieve the same?

    Since I have moved to the Interior, I have seen the wolf presence grow over the last 10-12 years. Rare at first, we have witnessed an explosion of their population to the point where we see their tracks right to the edge of the city of Kamloops. Unquestionably, their population has increased multiple folds.

    Coming back to wolves and caribou, what is the value of wolves? Actually, what is the value of a temporarilly over-healthy wolf population with dwindling populations of ungulates, including caribou? Thousands of British-Columbians enjoy the outdoors, and spend millions of dollars in the economy of rural BC during their hunting activities. Once the greater deer populations reach their lowest, you can be certain their recreational dollars will stay home.

    Furthermore, cattle populations (and ranch operators…) pay a large toll to that over-abundance of wolves. My work exposes me to these men and women. The number of animals lost over the years has been increasing as a result of wild predators, namely due to wolves.

    Historically, the presence of wolves, along with the other predators, needed to be tightly controlled to allow sustainable farming and ranching in BC. Ranchands were equiped with rifles with mission to take bears, badgers and cougars as ârt of their regular duties. Wolves were poisoned with strychnine… It worked, it created an environment favourable to farming. But in the last decades, we have left predators populations grow again, and I believe we have reach such a point where a strong intervention is needed again. Although not with strychnine, thankfully better options exist nowadays.

    You start to see my point, I believe we have to chose between ungulates and predators, namely here between caribou and wolves. And I support a firm action to drastically reduce the wolf population, for now and for the future as they will rebound, unlike the caribou populations.

    I completely understand the current situation is in great part the result of human activity, therefore we need to be part of the solution. And we are not going to stop mining and using wood products, even the biggest opponents to wolf control live in buldings framed with wood, use paper, and couldn't face life without cell phones… Our forrestry practices need to be optimized, but simplistic solutions like stopping forrestry are simple dellusions.

    Humans are here to stay (for a little longer…), humans live in this environment and human impacts are here to stay too, then humans need to interfere with the environment they inhabit to maintain ballance. That includes the control of predator populations.

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    [-] Bruce

    I agree with the comments above by Sadie and Meghan. Culling wolves is not the solution.

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    [-] Monica

    Wolves are once again a scapegoat for our inability to figure out how to develop in a sustainable way. Wolves and caribou know how it coexist in balance. Human activity is the issue. Curb that instead. Please figure out how to work with nature instead of destroying it.

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    [-] Shayla

    I really appreciate the clarity of what people are saying here. How can you just go on and on with practices that ignore real causes (logging and environmental degradation) and attempt to solve it by culling wolves? You are demonstrating very clearly that you have no real clarity about what is going on here–that you are actually perpetuating the problem with this approach. It's very sad. I hope that enough people will speak up and prevent you from continuing to ignore what actually needs to be done.

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    [-] Tamis

    Please spend some time looking into this recently researched & published article :
    Serrouya R, McLellan BN, van Oort H, Mowat G, Boutin S. (2017) Experimental moose reduction lowers wolf density and stops decline of endangered caribou. PeerJ 5:e3736 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3736

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    [-] Tina

    I also agree with Sadie and Meghan's comments. A wolf cull would be devastating. Do something to protect caribou habitat (all of it).

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    [-] bryan

    Really? What other than predator control has been done to help the selkirk herd? Nominal rules about sledding etc? I will never vote for a government that uses this as a method to solve a habitat destruction issue.

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    [-] Jonathan

    Predator control is unethical and ineffective. Make the tough decisions to protect habitat instead.

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    [-] David

    Wolves and other predators should be protected, not killed. Predators regulate their own populations and are essential to healthy ecosystems.

    Killing predators purportedly to help prey populations is foolish and inhumane.

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    [-] Tena

    A wolve cull may seem like a fix to a long running issue for Caribou, but previous cullings have shown not to create the results needed. Protecting old growth areas is key, without question! Logging and oil company profits are not worth the end of any species. The basics should be obvious. Tight protection of all old growth land, restoration of already tainted land ( with extremely low impact by human intervention) and protection of ALL species who have historically lived and thrived ( and can thrive again ) on the lands. Nature can and will rescue these creatures, IF humans stop interfering. Cohabitation is necessary in some areas. Let us all respect and remember all of the creatures who rely on the lands in jeopardy.

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    [-] Sarah

    Wolf culling and other inhumane practices towards wolves will not solve the caribou problem. Habitat restoration is the biggest problem we face and we as humans need to take responsibility for our role. It is ludicrous to blame wolves for the problems we have created.

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    [-] Lauren

    Habitat is what needs to be focused on. Killing off one species to protect another will not work. If the habitat is in decline none of the beloved species will survive. Focus on protecting and rebuilding the habitat.

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    [-] Bethany

    The wolf cull is inhumane and and unethical. It is within our grasp to conceive and put into action non-murderous, better, and more effective means of preserving the caribou population.

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    [-] CL

    If backed by best available science, and required to sustain caribou populations while habitat recovers, then the management of predators seems required. If predator management is aggressive while habitat restoration and access management are weak or non-existent, I would not support predator management.

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    [-] Marina

    The main cause for caribou decline is and has been habitat loss and habitat degradation! Extraction activities are the obvious reason why this species is threatened. I demand sound science to be the guiding principles. Killing Wolves it’s not an option, as predators are key for a healthy ecosystem, as well as a huge source of economic revenue. It is embarrassing that BC is even considering such cull. Our responsibility is to protect all species and their ecosystems, it’s our heritage. I strongly oppose policies that favor industries that extract our natural capital while the benefits are not shared. Logging it’s everywhere and plantations are not forests, caribou’s need healthy forests to find their food in the lichens that only grow in healthy forests. Evolving policies to new realities of climate change is also a must. I demand BC to stop the hunting of carnivores to compensate for poor ecosystem management practices! Be real and honest and stop favoring hunters that bring nothing to our modern society! Either we evolve collectively or we will perish right after our great Wolves

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    [-] Tim

    The wolves deserve to live and thrive just the same. I do not feel that killing wolves is a proper course of action for this. Wolves should be protected too

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    [-] Lexxie

    Read about what happened in Yellowstone with the removal of predators. "Wolf management" is not the necessary action for this problem.

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    [-] Lexxie

    People are the problem, not wolves.

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    [-] Lexxie

    How hard is it to understand that culling is not the answer.

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    [-] David

    There is no need for "predator control", particularly the wolf cull.

    The primary issue is habitat. The government of BC must focus solely on habitat – provision & protection. Nature will then naturally find the healthy species balance.

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    [-] Dominique

    A cull of the wolves to protect the caribou is unnecessary and inhumane. You might assume to be fixing one issue but by and only creating another. Would you kill humans to solve issues within our society? No. We need to conserve and protect our environment and the habitats of the animals we share this Earth with. Step up and protect more of this Earth.

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    [-] Vanessa

    Hi. I can see no value in killing wolves, period. It seems a very Trump like thing to do.

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    [-] Verena

    I am very much against the killing of wolves (or any predator/prey) to help the caribou. This is a short term bandaid solution and I feel is ethically wrong.

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    [-] Valencia

    I am strongly against the killing of any animal for caribou recovery. This is not the reason for the caribou's decline and should not be thought of as a solution. The main issue is land use whether for logging/mining or recreation. Put those areas that are caribou sensitive aside.

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    [-] Celyne

    I believe that loss of habitat has had a negative effect on the Cariboo and that a wolf cull is not the answer. There has been much research done in Yellowstone Park when they reintroduced the wolf back into the environment and all the surprisingly positive effects it had on the park.

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    [-] Pierre

    Wolves are scapegoats! The loss of habitat is the reason for caribou herds destruction. Of course, wolves take advantage of easy preys because of deforestation and devastation of the territory. We can kill as many wolves as we want, caribous will still go extinct if we don't address habitat loss. On the other hand, with enough habitat, nature will balance itself and wolves will not prevail. It's ludicrous to kill one species to save another while the main reason for the decimation of caribou herds isn't the wolves but the destruction of habitat. I condemn any wolf cull and find this approach unworthy of BC.

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    [-] Vanessa

    Killing wolves is not the right strategy to protect caribou. Protect critical habitat – stop logging and road clearing that fragment it.

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    [-] Marion

    Blaming one animal for the disappearance to another and culling that species is a blinkered approach and non-scientific. The main problem is the change in habitat which is continuing to evolve and will attract different species depending on its phase of evolution.
    Protect the environment, do NOT kill its inhabitants

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    [-] Helen

    As a former twenty year resident of and regular visitor to British Columbia who now resides on the east coast, I have to voice my concern with a wolf cull. As humans, we're aware that a delicate balance exists on earth that is negatively impacted by our continued interference. To kill a wolf for our failure to honour nature is futile. If this is for the hunters' game, then shame.

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    [-] Kyle

    Killing the wolves is not an evidence based solution. As the top predator in the ecosystem they play a fundamental role. An ecosystem without the wolves is a sad picture of squalid biodiversity.

    The protection of key habitats for the caribou is a true objective. This could work without the cull. As the killing according to the mandate is only meant to work with as part of a holistic strategy.

    Perhaps there should be a complete halt on licenses for hunting caribou. Maybe that would satisfy the rebound of the population.

    The assumption that we can consume massive tracts of land and simply cherry pick populations to fit human systems is crazy. It is the zooification of nature, something that we have attempted and failed in the past. The product of such a policy will be an ecosystem in disarray and future generations inheriting another preventable problem.

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    [-] Cindy

    It seems you can say anything is 'science based' and get away with it. Yes emotions are involved in something when you truly believe it to be wrong. And for those of you who say only those who live in the south want to not kill wolves, you are wrong. I have lived in Northern BC for most of my 50 years. I lived in a hunting family although I will never hunt myself again as I've grown and changed my views. Have a read on the book Wolves of the Yukon written by a biologist who was part of the big wolf culls up there. He says "I can now say the benefits of broad scale killing of wolves are far from worth it – not to moose, caribou, Dall's sheep or people. It should never happen again." Bob Hayes

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    [-] Cindy

    Sure they are but guess what, they don't go to Safeway. We may have to let nature take it's course and pick up the pieces… no killing wolves or anything else. I see wolves driving big $90,000 pickups, jet boats, quads, argos… they can go to Safeway.

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    [-] Cindy

    Spend your time hiring regular people to go out and deactivate those roads, plant vegetation, trees… takes time but still always better than killing.

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    [-] Cindy

    Yes it is controversial because it is unethical… in this day and age we should know better and do better.

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    [-] Cindy

    5 Year plans are ridiculous… where is the 100 year plan?

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    [-] Cindy

    Not everything that society wants is 'science based' – we are evolving to a more compassionate society that bases a lot of things we do on how we treat our planet.

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    [-] Tegan

    It is worthwhile noting that the predator control measures taken around the South Selkirks and Purcell herds were catastrophically failures. Despite the large number of wolves culled, those herds are down to just 3 and 4 members.

    Clearly, predator control does not function. Especially without habitat protection measures. It is incredibly unscientific and irresponsible to continue predator control in the absence of habitat protection and an immediate moratorium on new development in caribou habitat – for every herd.

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    [-] Ben

    Wolves and caribou need each other to survive. Wolves make the caribou stronger by killing the old and sick, and caribou offer nourishment to the wolves. Simple. Additionally, the genetically distinct British Columbian Rain Wolf thrives on a diet consisting mostly of seafood. Eating clams, fish, mussels, and other coastline wildlife. Canada has a responsibility to preserve and help its natural wildlife, some of the most diverse flora and fauna remaining in the world, and the best way to do that is by protecting wolves and protecting the habitat so desperately needed by the caribou.

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    [-] Colleen

    I do not agree with the killing of one species to save another. It is not been scientifically proven to work, nor is it an ethical approach. Research has shown that killing wolves will not prevent the reduction in caribou populations. The reason for the decline in the populations is habitat loss and habitat fragmentation. Those issues are the ones that need to addressed immediately. The BC Government has known this for a long, long time yet have done very little to remedy this. Instead they focus a public campaign on hunting wolves and make them the scapegoat for the caribou decline. This is unacceptable.

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    [-] Bailey

    Killing wolves as a bandaid for an admittedly human-made problem is illogical, short-sighted, and cruel. There is no scientific evidence to support that a wolf cull would benefit caribou. Predator-prey relationships are necessary for healthy functioning ecosystems, and culling a keystone species like wolves would undoubtedly have cascade effects on other species in the area, creating further imbalance and less healthy ecosystems in the long term. It is clearly understood that human industries are the cause of caribou population decline. Protecting habitats is obviously the only effective solution, and to think that further human intervention by killing other species is misguided and, frankly, stupid.

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    [-] Sheryl

    Killing wolves with no clear commitment to protection and restoration of habitat is neither an ethical nor realistic long-term recovery strategy. Information regarding wolf culls should be made freely available to the public, along with full disclosure of their costs and impacts on wolves, caribou, and non target species.

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    [-] Alex

    Conservation is about populations and it needs to stay that way. It's imperative that the science is examined objectively by people who are committed to conservation of species, not animal rights or welfare, which are distinct studies with different objectives than conservation.

    As long as the conservation science shows that culling predators improves the chances of caribou recovery, we should continue, and I am heartened by the tone of this section that suggests it will be.

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    [-] Jennifer

    To avoid a continued depended on the Band-Aid solution of predator control, roads and snowmobile tracks or any other linear feature that leads into caribou habitat must NOT be used in winter to avoid tracking down the snow and making travel easy for wolves, and they should be reclaimed and re-contoured so that summer access by wolves is no longer possible or no easier than travel through surrounded undisturbed habitat. This of course, must all be done in conjunction with a moratorium on any activity (industrial or recreational that degrades caribou habitat…otherwise wolves will continue to be killed for no reason, as caribou will never recover without sufficient habitat protected and recovered for them to persist in healthy and linked populations long-term.

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    [-] Jared

    Facts and evidence based management are required. There is no room for emotional based, populist opinion at this point in time. Let the wildlife managers and biologists make the call on the most effective means for caribou survival, especially calf survival. This current gov't already made survival of caribou more difficult closing the Grizzly bear hunt. A decision that was absolutely not science based. Recognize the poor decision made and revert back to managing ALL predators, including Grizzly bears, black bears, coyotes, wolves, cougars as our caribou depend on this along with many other pragmatic measures that MUST be taken.

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    [-] Jorian

    Caribou are in decline due to habitat loss. Culling wolves is as ineffective as it is inhuman. If you want the calves of this beautiful creature to survive than conserve breeding grounds and stop clear cutting so much of their habitat.

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    [-] Charlie

    Loss of habitat is the true issue here and the wolf population is being treated as a scapegoat. Efforts should be put into habitat conservation.

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    [-] Trevor

    Predator culls undertaken without meaningful habitat protection are worse than immoral. I say this insofar as any success predator culls (+ liberalized moose and deer hunts + maternity penning) may have in stabilizing a particular herds is necessarily short term. It is short-term insofar as it 'authorizes'' more logging and, through this, brings us closer to the day when episodic winter starvation begins to work in synergy with predation to greatly accelerate Deep-Snow Mountain Caribou decline. By worse than immoral I mean that wolf slaughter is bad enough, but worse still is that it at some point becomes slaughter for the sake of slaughter.

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    [-] Michael

    The predator-prey relationship has been studied for many many years and does not support this strategy. It’s like focusing on seals when fish stocks (like salmon or cod) declined due to overfishing, farms, and habitat loss. The government needs to stop looking for the easy thing (hey, let’s shoot some wolves instead of the difficult but actual real solution) and do the right thing.

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    [-] Gwen

    Please use science in your decision making! Wolf culls have been proven ineffective and the barbaric methods used to kill them need to be stopped. Wolves are necessary for healthy prey populations to thrive. The main thing that will save caribou is land! Set aside land for their conservation rather than kill one species to protect another.

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    [-] Victor

    The Federal government’s guideline wolf density target is 3/1000km2 for Southern caribou populations. Site specific wolf management has proven to be ineffective; it must be meaningful for caribou and applied at the landscape level.

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    [-] Aaron

    I believe there to be insufficient data to support the theory that declining caribou numbers are linked with wolf kills. I believe scientific study has shown that artificial manipulation of predators is disastrous to the long term health of the ecosystem. When animal environments are reduced, and prey animals decline, killing off predators is cruel and detrimental to the overall health of the area.

    I’ve visited BC for vacation in the past but would consider boycotting the area in the future if work culling is approved and sanctioned. I’m already avoiding certain US states for the same reason. We have to learn to live without artificially monkeying with the ecosystem balance, especially when it means the wholesale slaughter of a valuable resource such as the great wolves of the BC area. Don’t approve wolf culls, find other methods.

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    [-] Kim

    Ever consider man being the ultimate predator to any animal? Please do not follow in the footsteps of the US. We humans are taking over their habitat by consistently building on it. We are the true culprits here not the wolves. The more we take away their habitat the more home they lose.

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    [-] Doug

    We need to see a big reduction in wolf numbers. Perhaps it is time put a bounty on wolves to encourage hunters and trappers to do more to reduce the wolf numbers.

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    [-] Ben

    As with most wildlife management challenges, human activity is what drives the instability. Killing predators is a waste and does not address the root cause of the problem. Large mammals require sufficient, undisturbed land to maintain healthy populations. This should be the focus.

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    [-] Doug

    Wolves are not the only predator that preys on Caribou. Grizzly numbers in the Selkirk's are very high. Grizzly numbers need to be reduced. There needs to be a hunting and/or trapping season for the grizzly. The current ban on hunting them is a huge mistake for the ungulate population. Something similar to the black bear regulations should make this easier for anti hunters. Simply legislate that the edible portions must taken. An increase in the bag limit for cougars should also be considered.

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    [-] Ben

    Imbalance in this predator/prey relationship is 100% the result of human interference in the environment. Suck it up and make decisions to curb and roll back the human impact on caribou, instead of making the easier decision to kill predators, which nothing more than a shortsighted treatment with no lasting benefit.

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    [-] Sarah

    Wolf cull is inhumane. If the reason for killing them were in fact about population control then the spay and neuter approach should have been the focus all along. Yes it is costly but guess who should be paying for that program? Industries that enable these natural predators to access endangered caribou. It is not the wolves that are the problem anyway; the caribou need safe undisturbed-by-human-habitat. Period. Write policies that make industries pay for the whole mess they've created (seeing as 'money' is the only language that resonates clearly with these organizations and operations), and make sure that once we are back on track a change in power can't reverse whatever changes occur through this process. Transparency is key on all of this so we can hold everyone accountable going forward.

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    [-] Dennis

    Once again public perception trumps scientific data. I witnessed a scene where 5 deer were killed by wolves and not eaten. Were they killed for practice or training or do the wolves get a thrill out of the chase and kill, certainly not for food.

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    [-] KY

    Why don’t you stop chopping down all the old growth forests which are essential to the livelihood of the caribou. Then and only then, will they rebound. It’s always human caused so stop blaming the wolves. This crap has been going on for centuries and it’s always the wolves’ fault. The science has proven that it’s a crock – so, try something different and listen to it

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    [-] Tom

    Documented science confirms wolves are part of the environment; they can cause "predator pits" (prey species so low they cannot recover with present predation rates) and to eliminate them is impossible (unless you have an highly accessible, intensively used area for human profit – logging does not come close to this intensity). People who casually say science says "this or that" may want to read scientific papers conducted by BC biologists from the 1970's onward.
    When populations get as low as some herds are, any mortality is significant. Planning, while it may have benefits in the future, doesn't matter if you get eaten today. Wolf culling has been described as inhumane; having seen moose with internal organ hanging out and bleeding to death would not be described by me as being humane. But culling can be done very humanely.

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    [-] Jared

    Predator management is a must for all of BC. The idea that nature will balance itself requires a complete removal of any human influence which simply isn't going to happen. As we sit in a period of time where predator numbers are incredibly high across the province it only makes sense to do what we can to bring them back into balance, especially in light of dwindling caribou herds!

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    [-] Scott

    Predator control MUST be something we do – if we do not, the caribou will pay the ultimate price. With clearly defined population unit goals, we can then apply this to predator numbers and take the appropriate action.
    Predator control should be used proactively, not simply as a crisis-management tool.
    Balance on the landscape is vital. Human impacts on the landscape have tipped the balance in favor of predators, leaving prey vulnerable.
    We recognize that culling predators is an emotionally-charged issue, difficult for a misinformed public to wrap their heads around. However, we must set our fickle emotions aside and adhere to science-based principles and do what is best for wildlife. We must not allow social responses to block appropriate management.
    By curtailing the hunting of grizzly bears, we have removed a management tool to help caribou. We advocate for the reinstatement of a science-based grizzly hunt.
    Predator control will be significantly more cost effective than penning.
    Allow the public to see the brutality of predation upon caribou to help them understand the real issues and consequences of not using predator control as a means of improving wildlife populations.
    Difficult decisions must be made in wildlife management. Often those decisions are not politically correct.

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    [-] Vincent

    My observations from decades as a hunter, trapper and guide have led me to believe that uncontrolled wolf populations have had a tremendous impact on ungulate populations, and caribou in particular. The days are long gone when wolf numbers were controlled because they had a valuable fur or were shot on sight by most rural residents. Unfortunately caribou and moose do not have litters of 4 to 10 like wolves. The largest pack I've encountered was up by Tumbler Ridge and 38 were counted in one group. Hopefully our government will look at doing something that may be politically unpopular but based on science to prevent the extinction of the woodland caribou. Based upon their recent decision regarding grizzly hunting, I'm not hopeful that future management decisions will be based on anything but politics and appeasement of environmental activist organizations.

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    [-] ANIL

    Predator control has to be a fundamental pillar of any caribou recovery plan. It is important to make the tough and controversial decision. Do not be swayed by emotional reactions that often come from uninformed positions.

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    [-] Emily

    To date, government efforts have relied heavily on predator control. Not only has it proven unsuccessful (also the case elsewhere, eg. Alberta wolf cull), but it's unethical and inhumane. Wolves have been scapegoated for the decline in caribou when in reality it is habitat destruction and fragmentation that is to blame. Instead of tackling these root causes for decline, the previous provincial government allowed habitat loss to continue while creating the illusion of action via the wolf cull. In fact, it was the forestry industry that suggested the wolf cull in the first place. Gunning down wolves from helicopters isn't an acceptable form of euthanasia, as per the Canadian Council on Animal Care. This is about maintaining ethical standards in conservation approaches and addressing root causes of caribou decline, not the symptoms. The new caribou recovery plan should focus on complete habitat protection and restoration (including of roads, trails, seismic lines that intersect caribou habitat).

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    [-] Lorna

    "High wolf numbers are associated with declining caribou populations" is a misleading statement as illuminated by wolf researchers and ecosystem biologists.
    Habitat compromise and destruction is the major factor of caribou decline.
    Complex predator-prey relationships exist within an ecosystem, and targeting one, such as the wolf, causes ecological disruptions, negatively impacting both plants and animals in the ecosystem. (read documentation of Greater Yellowstone landscape when wolves were targeted then recovered)

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    [-] Mark

    Manage predators by science in alignment with risks to caribou herds. decision making for predator management needs to be legislated so that the control for the decisions does not lie with politicians. It's an unfortunate situation predator control is needed, no conservationists wants to eradicate predators but we must weigh risk and consequence and prioritize the actions that will give caribou the best chance. Let science inform the process

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    [-] Lorna

    Wolf control should not be carried out either in isolation or as a multi-pronged solution.
    Experimental wolf kill programs show no evidence that caribou numbers increase.
    Studies of wolf kill programs show wolf numbers may increase due to compensatory reproduction, wolves from surrounding areas may immigrate into territory where wolves were removed.

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